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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
LOL, an abbreviation for laughing out loud, or laugh out loud, is a common element of Internet slang. It was used historically on Usenet but is now widespread in other forms of computer-mediated communication, and even face-to-face communication. It is one of many initialisms for expressing bodily reactions, in particular laughter, as text, including initialisms for more emphatic expressions of laughter such as LMAO ("laugh(ing) my a.. off"), and ROTFL or ROFL
("roll(ing) on the floor laughing"). Other unrelated expansions include
the now mostly historical "lots of luck" or "lots of love" used in
The list of acronyms "grows by the month" and they are collected along with emoticons and smileys into folk dictionaries that are circulated informally amongst users of Usenet, IRC, and other forms of (textual) computer-mediated communication. These initialisms are controversial, and several authors recommend against their use, either in general or in specific contexts such as business communications.
LOL was first documented in the Oxford English Dictionary in March 2011.
Laccetti (professor of humanities at Stevens Institute of Technology) and Molski, in their essay entitled The Lost Art of Writing,
are critical of the terms, predicting reduced chances of employment for
students who use such slang, stating that, "Unfortunately for these
students, their bosses will not be 'lol' when they read a report that
lacks proper punctuation and grammar, has numerous misspellings, various
made-up words, and silly acronyms." Fondiller and Nerone
in their style manual assert that "professional or business
communication should never be careless or poorly constructed" whether
one is writing an electronic mail message or an article for publication,
and warn against the use of smileys and these abbreviations, stating
that they are "no more than e-mail slang and have no place in business
Yunker and Barry in a study of online courses and how they can be improved through podcasting
have found that these slang terms, and emoticons as well, are "often
misunderstood" by students and are "difficult to decipher" unless their
meanings are explained in advance. They single out the example of "ROFL"
as not obviously being the abbreviation of "rolling on the floor laughing" (emphasis added). Haig
singles out LOL as one of the three most popular initialisms in
Internet slang, alongside BFN ("bye for now") and IMHO ("in my
honest/humble opinion"). He describes the various initialisms of
Internet slang as convenient, but warns that "as ever more obscure
acronyms emerge they can also be rather confusing". Bidgoli
likewise states that these initialisms "save keystrokes for the sender
but [...] might make comprehension of the message more difficult for the
receiver" and that "[s]lang may hold different meanings and lead to
misunderstandings especially in international settings"; he advises that
they be used "only when you are sure that the other person knows the
Shortis observes that ROTFL is a means of "annotating text with stage directions". Hueng, in discussing these terms in the context of performative utterances, points out the difference between telling
someone that one is laughing out loud and actually laughing out loud:
"The latter response is a straightforward action. The former is a
self-reflexive representation of an action: I not only do something but
also show you that I am doing it. Or indeed, I may not actually laugh
out loud but may use the locution 'LOL' to communicate my appreciation
of your attempt at humor."
David Crystal notes that use of LOL is not necessarily genuine,
just as the use of smiley faces or grins is not necessarily genuine,
posing the rhetorical question "How many people are actually 'laughing
out loud' when they send LOL?". Franzini
concurs, stating that there is as yet no research that has determined
the percentage of people who are actually laughing out loud when they
Victoria Clarke, in her analysis of telnet talkers, states that capitalization is important when people write LOL, and that "a user who types LOL may well be laughing louder than one who types lol", and opines that "these standard expressions of laughter are losing force through overuse". Egan
describes LOL, ROTFL, and other initialisms as helpful as long as they
are not overused. He recommends against their use in business
correspondence because the recipient may not be aware of their meanings,
and because in general neither they nor emoticons are (in his view)
appropriate in such correspondence. June Hines Moore shares that view. So, too, does Lindsell-Roberts, who gives the same advice of not using them in business correspondence, "or you won't be LOL".
Spread from written to spoken communication
LOL, ROFL, and other initialisms have crossed from computer-mediated
communication to face-to-face communication. David Crystal—likening the
introduction of LOL, ROFL, and others into spoken language in magnitude
to the revolution of Johannes Gutenberg's invention of movable type
in the 15th century—states that this is "a brand new variety of
language evolving", invented by young people within five years, that
"extend[s] the range of the language, the expressiveness [and] the
richness of the language".
Geoffrey K. Pullum
points out that even if interjections such as LOL and ROFL were to
become very common in spoken English, their "total effect on language"
would be "utterly trivial".
Conversely, a 2003 study of college students by Naomi Baron found that the use of these initialisms in computer-mediated communication (CMC), specifically in instant messaging, was actually lower
than she had expected. The students "used few abbreviations, acronyms,
and emoticons". The spelling was "reasonably good" and contractions were
"not ubiquitous". Out of 2,185 transmissions, there were 90 initialisms
in total, only 31 CMC-style abbreviations, and 49 emoticons. Out of the 90 initialisms, 76 were occurrences of LOL.
On March 24, 2011, LOL, along with other acronyms, has been formally recognized in an update of the Oxford English Dictionary.
In their research, it was determined that the earliest recorded use of
LOL as an initialism was for "little old lady" in the 1960s.
They also discovered that the oldest written record of the use of LOL
in the contemporary meaning of "Laughing Out Loud" was from a message
typed by Wayne Pearson in the 1980s, from the archives of Usenet.
Gabriella Coleman references "lulz" extensively in her anthropological studies of Anonymous.
The past tense of lol is lolled. The participle form is lolling.
Variations on the theme
Variants of LOL
- lolz: Occasionally used in place of LOL.
- lulz: Often used to denote laughter at someone who is the victim of a prank, or a reason for performing an action. This variation is often used on the Encyclopedia dramatica wiki and 4chan image boards. According to a New York Times article about Internet trolling, "lulz means the joy of disrupting another's emotional equilibrium." Can be used as a noun — e.g. "do it for the lulz.", shortened into "ftlulz" (to distinguish it from "ftl" - "for the lose"). See also LulzSec.
- lolwut: lol + wut, used to indicate bemused laughter, or confusion.
- Lawl or Lal: Pseudo-pronunciation of LOL. Saying "lawl" is
sometimes meant in mockery of those who use the term LOL, and is not
meant to express laughter.
- LOLOLOLOL: For added emphasis, LOL can be appended with any
number of additional iterations of "OL". In cases such as these, the
abbreviation is not to be read literally (i.e., "Laughing out loud out
loud out loud out loud"), but is meant to suggest several LOLs in a row.
- trolololol or trollololol: A portmanteau of troll
and LOL iterated. Indicates that the prank or joke was made by internet
trolls, or the user thinks the prank or joke qualifies as internet trolling. See also Mr. Trololo.
- LMAO: For "Laughing my ass off". Variant: LMFAO ("Laughing my f..king a.. off").
- ROFL: For "Rolling on the floor laughing". It is often combined with LMAO for added emphasis as ROFLMAO ("Rolling on the floor laughing my a.. off"). Variant: ROTFL.
- Roflcopter: A portmanteau of ROFL and helicopter
and popularized by the website www.roflcopter.com. The website
contained the animated gif and nothing else. The term was supposedly
first used by a Blizzard Entertainment moderator in the Warcraft III forum in 2003.
- lqtm: For "Laughing quietly to myself".
- *G* or *g*: For "grins". Like "lulz" it is used in the initialism "J4G" ("just for grins").
Commonly used equivalents in other languages
Most of these variants are usually found in lowercase.
- mdr: Esperanto version, from the initials of "multe da ridoj", which translates to "lot of laughs" in English.
- mdr: French
version, from the initials of "mort de rire" which roughly translated
means "died of laughter", although many French people also use LOL
instead as it is the most widely used on the internet.
- ???/???: Hebrew version of LOL. The letter ? is pronounced 'kh' and ?
is pronounced 'h'. Putting them together (usually three or more in a
row) makes the word khakhakha or hahaha (since vowels in Hebrew are
generally not written), which is in many languages regarded as the sound
- 555: the Thai variation of LOL. "5" in Thai is pronounced "ha", three of them being "hahaha".
- asg: Swedish abbreviation of the term asgarv, meaning intense laughter.
- g: Danish abbreviation of the word griner, which means "laughing" in Danish.
- rs: in Brazil
"rs" (being an abbreviation of "risos", the plural of "laugh") is often
used in text based communications in situations where in English LOL
would be used, repeating it ("rsrsrsrsrs") is often done to express
longer laughter or laughing harder. Also popular is "kkk" (which can
also be repeated indefinitely), due to the pronunciation of the letter k in Portuguese sounding similar to the ca in card, and therefore representing the laugh "cacacacaca" (also similar to the Hebrew version above).
- mkm: in Afghanistan "mkm" (being an abbreviation of the phrase "ma khanda mikonom"). This is a Dari phrase that means "I am laughing".
- ???/???: in Chinese, although ?? (da xiao; "big laugh") is used, a more widespread usage is "???" (ha ha ha) or "???" (he he) on internet forums.
- ?????: in Arabic is a repetition of the "?" character meaning "Hahahaha" or "Hehehehe". "?"
is equivalent to the letter "H", while the "a" (or "e") is treated as
an implied short vowel, and isn't written (as is standard in Arabic and